The Irish plastic bag levy was introduced in March 2002 under the Waste Management Regulations 2001.

The tax is passed directly to consumers at the point of sale, and has thus been reported to provide a clearer, more consistent message than systems where retailers are responsible for the levy. The tax was implemented to ‘change consumers’ behaviour to reduce the presence of plastic bags in the rural landscape, and to increase public awareness of littering’. Revenues from the tax are paid into an Environmental Fund which is administered by the Department of Environment, Heritag...

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In Germany, Austria, and Switzerland different regulations have been put into place to ban the use of disposable food and drink containers at large scale events and to establish a framework for the use of reusable crockery.

Description of one-way ban in Munich: On public land, since 1991, a by-law of the city of Munich forbids the use and sale of disposable tableware, cups, but also drink packaging on land owned by the city.

This obligation applies to all city facilities and events, such as th...

Published in Detailed factsheets

The main objective of the eco-tax on bags is to gather extra income for the Environmental Fund and at the same time to reduce the demand for plastic bags on the market. This is done by imposing a 0,2 RON (0.04 Euro) for each bag made from non-biodegradable materials that is introduced on the market.

The producer has to pay this sum for every bag introduced on the market, regardless of its size or quality. What matters is whether or not the bag is made from biodegradable materials.